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Private address

 

Class Private IP Address Range Subnet Mask
A 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 255.0.0.0
B 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 255.240.0.0
C 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 255.255.0.0

 

TEST-NET Addresses

The address block 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0/24) is set aside for teaching and learning purposes.

Experimental Addresses

The addresses in the block 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254.

IPV4 and IPV6

 

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Broadcast address
All-Subnets-Directed Broadcast

The IP all-subnets-directed broadcast address is the address formed by setting all the original classful network ID host bits to 1 for a nonclassful network. A packet addressed to the all-subnets-directed broadcast is intended to reach all hosts on all of the subnets of a subnetted class-based network ID.

An example of an all-subnets-directed broadcast address for the subnetted network ID 131.107.26.0/24 is 131.107.255.255. The all-subnets-directed broadcast is the network broadcast address of the original classful network ID.

All hosts of a nonclassful network listen for and process packets addressed to the all-subnets-directed broadcast address. RFC 922 required IP routers to forward all-subnets-directed broadcast packets to all subnets of the original classful network ID implied in the address. However, this forwarding was not widely implemented.

With the advent of classless network IDs, the all-subnets-directed broadcast address is no longer relevant. According to RFC 1812, the use of the all-subnets-directed broadcast has been deprecated.

Notice how the all-subnets-directed address is the same as the subnet broadcast for the all-ones subnet. For example, the 8-bit subnetting of the class B network ID 157.54.0.0 produces the subnets {157.54.0.0/24, 157.54.1.0/24 . . . 157.54.254.0/24, 157.54.255.0/24}. For the last subnet, 157.54.255.0/24, the subnet broadcast is 157.54.255.255, which is the same as the all-subnets-directed broadcast address of 157.54.255.255. This address conflict is not an issue for routers that do not forward all-subnets-directed broadcast traffic.

Limited Broadcast

The limited broadcast address is the address formed by setting all 32 bits of the IP address to 1 (255.255.255.255). The limited broadcast address is used when an IP node must perform a one-to-everyone delivery on the local network but the network ID is unknown.

The limited broadcast address is typically used only by nodes during an automated configuration process such as Boot Protocol (BOOTP) or DHCP. For example, with DHCP, a DHCP client must use the limited broadcast address for all traffic sent until the DHCP server acknowledges the IP address lease.

All hosts, classful or nonclassful, listen for and process packets addressed to the limited broadcast address. Although it appears that the limited broadcast address is addressed to all nodes on all networks, it appears only on the local network and is never forwarded by routers. The limited broadcast packet is limited to the local network segment.

In Windows, the following registry setting controls the address of the limited broadcast address:

UseZeroBroadcast

Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters \InterfaceGUID
Value type: REG_DWORD
Valid range: 0 - 1
Default: 0
Present by default: Yes

UseZeroBroadcast determines whether the limited broadcast is 0.0.0.0 (when set to 1) or 255.255.255.255 (when set to 0). By default, UseZeroBroadcast is set to 0. Some implementations of TCP/IP, such as those derived from UNIX, use 0.0.0.0 as their limited broadcast address. On the same subnet, all nodes should be using the same limited broadcast address.